The old coat of arms of Patria del Friuli is the heraldic Eagle of gold on a blue background. Art. 2 of L.R. no. 6 of 27 March 2015 reads: "The flag of the Friulian community consists of a cloth of rectangular shape with a gold heraldic Eagle, spreading its wings, its head turned left, an open beak and red claws, on a blue background. The emblem is three-fifths of the height of the flag, which must be high two-thirds of its length". Art. 3 of Regional Law regulates its exposure, with the following rules: "Pursuant to article 6 of the Regional Law 27/2001, local authorities and offices in the region can expose the flag of Friuli, on the outside of their homes, during the "Fiestas de Patrie dal Friûl"; at the beginning, the regional administration is authorized to provide to the local authorities requesting a flag of Friuli for outdoor exposure, for free".
The most famous and ancient patriarchal pennon specimen is on display in the Cathedral of Udine: it was sewn on white linen shirts that, enveloping the body of Patriarch Bertrand de Saint Geniès, who had remained in the see of Aquileia from 1334 to 1350 and brutally killed by a conspiracy of nobles from Friuli. The old flag still is the universally recognised flag of Friuli. Not to be confused with the flag of the purely administrative institution named "Friuli Venezia Giulia", which has a much more recent origin (1963) and far from historical significance (the regional flag, the Eagle represents Rome that rescues Aquileia, symbolized by the underlying tower).
For more details on the characteristics of the official flag: www.arlef.it/it/risorse/bandiera/8.
Friulian is a Romance language of the Ladin language group; it devoped around the year one thousand and has maintained over the centuries, its own particular originality, which makes it even much different today from Italian and other spoken of neighboring lands.
The first documents in Friulian date back to the 12th and 13th centuries when the first poems were written; since then, the literary production in Friulian increasingly developed, reaching top-level quality.
Nowadays, Friulian is spoken on more than 80% of the territory, by about 600,000 – 650,000 people in 176 municipalities in the Provinces of Gorizia, Pordenone and Udine and 7 municipalities in the Province of Venice.
The first official recognition of Friulian dates back to 1996, when the Regional Law 15/96 was approved; a few years later, the Italian State recognized, with Law 482/99, the Friulian minority, over 50 years after the adoption of article 6 of the Constitution. The Region finally approved a new law for the protection of Friulian: L.R. 29/2007.
The Parliament of the Friuli Homeland developed from the advisory meeting of the nobles and the clergy, gathered by the Patriarch of Aquileia since the 12th century to obtain new contributions and men at arms. Since its early stage, however, in addition to nobles and churchmen, there were also representatives of the municipalities that, thanks to the results of their activites as merchants, were able to pay taxes. The cities of Aquileia, Cividale, Udine, Gemona, Tolmezzo and Sacile were included from the early stage in the Parliament, during the 13th century. Since the beginning, the Assembly included a representative of the clergy, the Bishop of Concordia, the capitoli (groups of canons) of Aquileia and Cividale, the Abbots of Rosazzo, Moggio and Sesto al Reghena, Beligna (South of Aquileia) and later also the Abbot of Summaga (near Portogruaro), the provosts of San Felice and Santo Stefano of Aquileia, San Pietro di Carnia and Sant'Odorico. Even the female monasteries of Santa Maria in Valle in Cividale and the Monastero Maggiore of Aquileia had seats in the Parliament. The nobles were divided into free and ministerial ones: the first, such as the Count of Gorizia, were appointed by the Emperor, the latter by the Patriarch, for which they performed specific functions or ministries. In addition to the communities mentioned above, also those of Monfalcone, Marano, Portogruaro, Venzone, and some areas in Fagagna, Meduna, San Vito al Tagliamento and Caneva of Sacile were included. The National Assembly also used the Friulian language. The Patriarch was the feudal State, or principatus Italiae et Imperii created on April 3rd, 1077 by Emperor Henry IV; Parliament represented the Friulian universitas of Friuli in the presence of the Prince.
For further information on the Friulian Parliamentary history:
The Friulian Parliament / Pier Silverio Leicht; [edited by Roberto Tirelli; collaboration with the Deputazione di Storia Patria per il Friuli]. - Udine : Provincia di Udine, 1999. - 2 v. in 1 ; 25 cm
. - (Collana del Friuli storico ; 1) Leicht, Pier Silverio,
Udine : Province of Udine, 1999
Atti delle assemblee costituzionali italiane dal Medio Evo al 1831. Serie 1., Stati generali e provinciali. Sezione 6., Parlamento friulano e Stati provinciali goriziani. - Bologna : Zanichelli
Rappresentanze e territori : parlamento friulano e istituzioni rappresentative territoriali nell'Europa moderna / a cura di Laura Casella. - Udine : Forum, 2003. - 502 p. ; 25 cm.
- (Strumenti di storia del Friuli ; 1) Casella, Laura
Udine : Forum, 2003